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A History of Stanford

Stanford University was founded in 1885 by California senator Leland Stanford and his wife, Jane, “通过代表人类和文明的影响力来促进公共福利。.”

Stanford family
A portrait of Senator Leland Stanford, Jane Lathrop Stanford, Leland Stanford Jr. taken in 1878. (Image credit: Stanford University Archives)

When railroad magnate and former California Gov. Leland Stanford and his wife, Jane Lathrop Stanford, lost their only child, Leland, Jr., to typhoid in 1884, they decided to build a university as the most fitting memorial, and deeded to it a large fortune that included the 8,180-acre Palo Alto stock farm that became the campus. The campus is located within the traditional territory of the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe.  The Stanfords made their plans just as the modern research university was taking form.

Leland Stanford Junior University – still its legal name – opened Oct. 1, 1891.

365bet体育及其创始校长大卫·斯塔尔·乔丹(David Starr Jordan)的目标是让他们的新大学成为无宗派的大学, co-educational and affordable, to produce cultured and useful graduates, 同时教授已经在改变美国的传统文科和技术工程.

他们的设想是在旧金山半岛的橡树点缀的田野上形成一个拱廊和四合院的矩阵,旨在扩大和消除人与人之间的隔阂, disciplines and ideas.

Olmstead Campus Plan
The Boston firm Shepley, Rutan, 柯立芝与弗雷德里克·劳·奥姆斯特德(Frederick Law Olmsted)合作,制定了大学的最终建筑计划, with its distinctive arches, quadrangles and arcades. (Image credit: Stanford University Archives)

From the start, stewardship of the founders’ extraordinary land gift has helped support university endeavors, and has made room for a multiplicity of institutes, 学校和实验室相互促进创新,改变了世界. Computer time-sharing, 第一次分离出高度纯化的干细胞和第一次合成具有生物活性的DNA, among many other breakthroughs, all originated at Stanford.

The early years were difficult, however, as even the Stanfords’ wealth proved inadequate to their vision. 丈夫去世后,简·斯坦福(Jane Stanford)通过自己的领导,维持了这所羽翼未丰的大学的运转. The 1906 earthquake dealt a further blow, killing two people and destroying several campus buildings, some so new they had never been occupied.

University benefactor and trustee Herbert Hoover, future U.S. president and member of Stanford’s Pioneer Class of 1895, 在20世纪20年代,365bet体育实现了大学运作的专业化,并帮助斯坦福建立了良好的财务基础. He founded an institute to collect global political material – today’s Hoover Institution Library and Archives – and led the creation of the Graduate School of Business, both now world leaders in their respective fields.

Engineering Professor Frederick Terman, dubbed the “Father of Silicon Valley,他鼓励365bet体育的学生不仅开发自己的想法,而且将其商业化. In 1937, physicists Russell Varian, Sigurd Varian and William Hansen developed the klystron ultra-high-frequency vacuum tube, paving the way for commercial air navigation, satellite communication and high-energy particle accelerators. In 1939, 研究生威廉·休利特和大卫·帕卡德开发了这种精密音频振荡器, first low-cost method of measuring audio frequencies, and spun it into the company now known as HP. 1951年,365bet体育开发了斯坦福研究园区,以容纳由这些创新者领导的公司. Varian Associates became the first tenants.

The Varian brothers
The Varian brothers and William Hansen with the klystron. (Image credit: Stanford University Archives)

The post-World War II era saw many research advances. In 1959, Stanford Medical School moved from San Francisco to the main Palo Alto campus. The 1950s also saw planning of today’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, managed under license from the U.S. Department of Energy and opened in 1962. The first website in North America went online at SLAC 29 years later. Advances in particle physics developed at SLAC led to the Linac Coherent Light Source, 是谁能够在原子尺度上捕捉到化学变化的超快图像,从而使它成为全球制药研究的目的地. The Cold War also gave rise to “the Dish,” the radio telescope that is a familiar landmark in the foothills behind campus. The hill housing the Dish is a conservation area open to the public, and more than 2,000 people run or hike “Dish Hill” each day.

The Dish
在校园上方的山麓,Dish是一个建于1966年的射电望远镜,至今仍在使用. The area’s trails are used by more than 500,000 visitors a year. (Image credit: Alex Webb)

Deep in the foothills beyond the Dish, a much smaller structure yielded epochal discoveries when it became home to the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL), founded by John McCarthy and Les Earnest in 1965. SAIL researchers devised the first interactive system for computer design, as well as pioneering work on computer vision, robotics, laser printing and automated assembly. The world’s first office desktop computer displays appeared at SAIL in 1971.

In the 1970s, Stanford sought new ways to transform society and preserve the environment. 它切断了与机密国防研究的联系,开辟了新的服务和管理途径. 通过增加校园住宿和免费的玛格丽特班车,365bet体育减少了对汽车的依赖, named after a 19th-century horse that pulled a jitney between campus and Palo Alto. The Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve 是在1973年被指定来帮助保存半岛的绿色“肺”,并获得那里收集的生物数据,这些数据帮助建立了种群遗传学领域.

The multidisciplinary Stanford Humanities Center, first of its kind in the nation and still the largest, opened in 1980 to advance research into the historical, philosophical, literary, artistic and cultural dimensions of the human experience. At this and 30 other humanities-related centers on campus, 从杰出的本科生到职业生涯中期的研究员,学者们创造了对世界和人类在其中的位置的新的理解.

From the start, Stanford has valued experiential education. 慷慨的资金帮助不同经济背景的本科生享受同等的经验和机会. In 2015, 85%的学生获得了某种形式的经济援助,78%的365bet体育本科生毕业时没有负债. More than 1,000 undergraduates conduct faculty-directed research and honors projects each year, while 1,000 take part in public-service projects and 1,000 study overseas, all without regard for ability to pay. Since 1992, all undergraduates are guaranteed four years of on-campus housing, 与365bet体育对住宿教育的重视以及在大型研究型大学中建立小型文理学院的经验相一致.

A significant physical transformation followed the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, which again challenged the university’s resilience and vision. Stanford’s main Green Library renovated its heavily damaged west wing as the Bing Wing, while the similarly damaged Stanford Art Museum reopened in 1999 as the Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts.

In 1985, the B. 罗德坎托罗丹雕塑园开放,是巴黎以外最大的罗丹铜像收藏园. It became the nexus for a world-class collection of 20th- and 21st-century sculpture, nearly all of it freely accessible to the public. 今天,博物馆和雕塑花园是斯坦福艺术区的一部分,包括 Bing Concert Hall, the McMurtry Building for experiential arts learning and the acclaimed Anderson Collection of 20th-century American painting.

Anderson Collection
The Anderson Collection, which opened in 2014, 是世界上最杰出的美国现当代艺术私人集会之一吗. (Image credit: Alex Webb)

The James H. 克拉克生物医学工程和科学中心成立于2003年,是工程和医学院之间的地理和智力纽带 Bio-X, a pioneering interdisciplinary biosciences institute led by Professor Carla Shatz. Its collaboration-friendly architecture set the tone for future building, 促进跨学科发展,这成为约翰·亨尼斯校长任期内的一个标志. The environmentally sensitive construction seen in the Clark Center, the Science and Engineering Quad, 医学院和其他地方履行了大学对可持续性研究的深刻承诺, teaching and institutional practice. In 2015, Stanford Energy System Innovations电力热回收系统加入了大学的太阳能和地热能采购计划,从而减少了大约68%的校园排放.

The Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford opened in the School of Engineering in 2005, 将来自不同背景的学生和教师聚集在一起,共同发展创新, human-centered solutions to real-world challenges. Using techniques from design and engineering, the institute, known on campus as the d.school, 灌输创造性的信心,并吸引学生超越传统学科的边界.

Development campaigns of unprecedented scope carry forward the Stanford family’s vision. The 2000 Campaign for Undergraduate Education raised $1 billion, while the Stanford Challenge concluded in 2012 after raising $6.2 billion, then the largest fundraising campaign undertaken by a university, to fund bold new initiatives. Meanwhile, the $1 billion Campaign for Stanford Medicine 重建斯坦福的两所成人和儿童医院是为了推进精准医疗的使命吗.

During 2016, Stanford celebrated its 125th year of transformational impact. 翻新后的Roble体育馆开放了一个专门的“艺术体育馆”,以帮助使艺术成为学生体验的不可或缺的一部分.  “Old Chem,” one of Stanford’s first buildings, received new life as the Sapp Center for Science Teaching and Learning.  The School of Humanities and Sciences launched the Humanities Core, 一个新的证书和辅修课程为本科生提供了一个结构化的途径来探索人类存在的基本问题. That year, Stanford also expanded its Bing Overseas Studies Program, 增加了本科生的研究机会,并在探索如何最好地利用在线技术扩大高质量教育的机会方面发挥了先锋作用.

The Sapp Center for Science Teaching and Learning
萨普科学教学中心重新设计了历史悠久的“旧化学”建筑,着眼于科学研究和教育的跨学科未来. (Image credit: L.A. Cicero)

今天的365bet体育包括7个学院和18个跨学科研究所,其中超过16个,000 students, 2,100 faculty and 1,800 postdoctoral scholars. Stanford is an international institution, enrolling students from all 50 U.S. states and 91 other countries. It is also an athletics powerhouse, 目前有900名学生运动员,拥有128个全国冠军和22个连续的利尔菲尔德体育总监杯的历史, awarded to the top intercollegiate athletics program in the nation.

At the 2016 Global Entrepreneurship Summit, hosted by Stanford, President Barack Obama praised the university as “a place that celebrates our ability as human beings to discover and learn and to build, to question, to reimagine, to create new ways to connect and work with each other.”